Supplements: Garcinia Cambogia Extract

SupplementsSupplements

Garcinia Cambogia is probably one to avoid!

Source: Garcinia Cambogia Fruit which is a small green to pale yellow fruit that is shaped a like a pumpkin.  It is grown in Southeast Asia and Africa and is also know as brindleberry, Malabar tamarind, and kudam puli.  

Garcinia cambogia became popular worldwide after being featured on the Dr. Oz show in 2012.  He touted it has as a weight loss miracle fruit.  Despite the considerable media attention purporting its effects on weight loss, there is very little evidence supporting the claims, and there is a significant risk of liver toxicity if you decide to take the commercially produced extracts.

The biggest problem with supplements for weight loss is they are a hodgepodge of ingredients so even if you have a side effect it is hard to tell which one of the components caused the problem.  This risk was the problem with the Hydroxycut recall for liver failure in 2009.  At the time, Hydroxycut contained Garcinia cambogia extract, chromium polynicotinate, and Gymnema sylvestre extract so which is the offending agent[1].  

Active ingredient:  The skin of the fruit contains hydroxycitric acid (HCA). This compound is the active ingredient in garcinia cambogia extract, which is marketed  in dietary  supplements

How it works: Animal studies show that it can inhibit a fat-producing enzyme in the body and increase levels of serotonin, potentially helping to reduce cravings[2],[3].  It has not been widely studied in humans or primates.  

Effectiveness: Another study looked at weight loss in two groups.  The study 130 people compared Garcinia cambogia against a control group. Both groups lost weight in the study, but there was no difference in weight loss or body fat percentage change between groups[4].

A 2011 meta-analysis review that looked at 12 studies on garcinia cambogia.  Although it found that it appeared to cause weight loss of about 2 pounds in four weeks, that weight loss is not statistically significant meaning that the difference was so modest that it is not worth the risk of side effects and that it might not even be real[5].  

Side effects:

Garcinia is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth for 12 weeks or less. Long-term safety is unknown. Garcinia can cause nausea, digestive tract discomfort, and headache.  The biggest problem is it has been tied to liver failure.  A little weight loss is just not worth the risk of destroying your liver.  

Pregnancy and breastfeeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking Garcinia if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. I would go a step further and say you should not take it at all if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.  It is not worth the risk.  

Recommendations:  Avoid this one until further research can be done to show it is safe and effective.  

References

[1]
“Live Science,” What Is Garcinia Cambogia? [Online]. Available: http://www.livescience.com/39243-garcinia-cambogia-supplement-facts.html. [Accessed: 10-Oct-2016]
[2]
J. Lowenstein, “Effect of (-)-hydroxycitrate on fatty acid synthesis by rat liver in vivo.,” J Biol Chem, vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 629–32, Feb. 1971. [PubMed]
[3]
S. Ohia, C. Opere, A. LeDay, M. Bagchi, D. Bagchi, and S. Stohs, “Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxycitric acid extract (HCA-SX).,” Mol Cell Biochem, vol. 238, no. 1–2, pp. 89–103, Sep. 2002. [PubMed]
[4]
S. Heymsfield, D. Allison, J. Vasselli, A. Pietrobelli, D. Greenfield, and C. Nunez, “Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial.,” JAMA, vol. 280, no. 18, pp. 1596–600, Nov. 1998. [PubMed]
[5]
I. Onakpoya, S. Hung, R. Perry, B. Wider, and E. Ernst, “The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight loss Supplement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials.,” J Obes, vol. 2011, p. 509038, Jan. 2011. [PubMed]
Print Friendly, PDF & Email
 

About the Author

ChuckH
I am a family physician who has served in the US Army. In 2016, I found myself overweight, out of shape, and unhealthy, so I made a change to improve my health. This blog is the chronology of my path to better health and what I have learned along the way.

Be the first to comment on "Supplements: Garcinia Cambogia Extract"

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: